Applications of Countercurrent Separation (CS) Technology

1. Solvent Systems by Compounds Classes

The inventor of HSCCC instrumentation, Dr. Ito, has published a paper that contains a comprehensive Table of CCC solvent systems with references to the separated chemical entities, many of them being natural products (Ito, 2005). In a similar vein, the book by K.+M. Hostettemann and A. Marston also contains a tabular compilation of solvent systems reported in the literature for various natural products separations (Hostettmen at al., 1998).

Literature Cited

Hostettmann, Kurt; Marston, Andrew; Hostettmann, Mareike. Preparative chromatography techniques: Applications in natural product isolation; 2nd ed.; Springer-Verlag: Berlin; New York, 1998.

Ito, Yoichiro. Golden rules and pitfalls in selecting optimum conditions for high-speed counter-current chromatography. Journal of Chromatography, A 2005, 1065, 145-168.


2. G.U.E.S.S. & Other Methods For Solvent System Selection

The Generally Usefull Estimation of Solvent Systems (G.U.E.S.S., syn. GUESS) in CS was developed by Friesen & Pauli and first presented at the CCC 2004 conference in Tokyo. G.U.E.S.S. takes the use of thin-layer chromatography in the prediction of CS solvent systems to a new level and simplifies the otherwise tedious optimization of CCC conditions. The subsequent 2005 publication in J. Liq. Chrom. Rel. Technol. also describes two solvent system families, HEMWat and ChMWat, and how they can be adjusted in a rational fashion to cover and extended polarity range of analytes.

Subsequently, the GUESS method triggered the rational development of further solvent systems and led to the establishment of the GUESSmix, a mixture of 23 natural products reference compounds which can be utilized to guide the classification of solvent systems, CS instruments and CS conditions (Friesen & Pauli 2007, Friesen & Pauli 2008). Examples for applications of the GUESS system including design of seapration conditions for congeneric natural products such a ginkgo constitutents (Qiu et al. 2012) the enrichment and quantification of minor botanical constituents (negative markers; Liu et al. 2014).

Literature Cited

Friesen, B.; Pauli, G. F.
G.U.E.S.S. to make generally useful estimations of solvent systems in CCC. J. Liq. Chromatogr. Relat. Technol. 2005, 28, 2877.

Friesen JB, Pauli GF, Rational development of solvent system families in counter-current chromatography.
Journal of Chromatography A 1151: 51-59 (2007).

Friesen JB, Pauli GF
Performance characteristics of countercurrent separation in analysis of natural products of agricultural significance.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56: 19-28 (2008)

Qiu F, Friesen JB, McAlpine JB, Pauli GF
Design of countercurrent separation of Ginkgo biloba terpene lactones by nuclear mgnetic resonance
Journal of Chromatography A 1242: 26-34 (2012)

Liu Y, Chen S-N, McAlpine JB, Klein LL, Friesen JB, Lankin DC, Pauli GF
Quantification of a botanical negative marker without an identical standard – ginkgotoxin in Ginkgo biloba
Journal of Natural Products 77: 611–617 (2014)

3. Separation Modes

The different types of CCC separation can be found under CCC experiments.